Last Updated on November 18, 2022 by Lily Connel
Urbanization is the process of transforming a rural area into an urban area. It is the physical growth of cities and towns, as well as the increase in the number of people who live in them. The United Nations defines an urban area as “a continuously built-up land area with a population density of at least 1,000 persons per square kilometre.”
Pros and Cons Of Urbanization – The Table
|Serial||Pros Of Urbanization||Cons Of Urbanization|
|1.||Urbanization often leads to an increase in trade.||Urbanization leads to increases in mental health problems.|
|2.||Urbanization is often associated with increased mobility in the labour market.||Access to basic services such as healthcare, education, and transportation is difficult in some areas.|
|3.||Technology is a major driver for urbanization.||There is a growing trend in crime rates and violence.|
|4.||Urbanization is a boon for agricultural productivity.||Traffic System is terrible in Urbanization,|
|5.||The rapid growth of cities brings new opportunities and better living conditions.||In Urbanization, pollution and greenhouse gas emissions are increasing.|
|6.||Urbanization Economic IS Increasable.||Urbanization City Noise level is high.|
Pros Of Urbanization
1. Increased Economic Opportunities
Urbanization leads to increased economic opportunities. The economy is driven by the number of people in a particular area. The more people, the more demand there is for jobs, goods, and services. Urbanization leads to faster economic development because it increases the size of markets available to companies to sell their products or services.
2. New Ideas / Better life
Urbanization allows for increased opportunities when it comes to new ideas and better living conditions. With urbanization comes higher education institutions leading to an increase in brainpower which leads to innovative ideas that can be implemented into society’s infrastructure. As far as being able to improve living conditions, cities tend to have more resources available allowing for improvements in quality of life such as building tall buildings with elevators so do not have to take the stairs or having more parks and green spaces.
3. Increased Productivity
Urbanization has been associated with increased agricultural productivity, as well as in the industrial and service sectors. Agricultural productivity is often higher in urban areas due to the use of modern inputs, such as fertilizers and pesticides, as well as improved transport and communication links to markets. Industrial productivity is also often higher in urban areas because of economies of scale and agglomeration effects (the benefits that arise from firms being located close to one another). In services, too, cities are more productive than rural areas. This is because service sector jobs are often knowledge-based and people working in them can more easily share ideas and best practices.
4. Increased Mobility
Urbanization is often associated with increased mobility in the labour market, both in terms of where people work and where they live. People can find jobs more easily when there are more available in their area, especially if they keep living at home. This side effect also means that workers do not have to travel long distances to get to work (reducing commuting times). The ability of individuals to be mobile can also lead to better matching of people and jobs. For example, farmers might be willing- or forced- to move out of rural areas where agriculture does not provide enough sustenance anymore. As a result, they will switch over to urban occupations like working in factories or driving cabs (see ‘realization’). Not everyone, however, can take advantage of the increased mobility that urbanization brings. People without cash reserves might not be able to afford to move and those who already live in cities might be stuck there due to limited job opportunities.
5. High Density And “Agglomeration” Economies
Urban areas tend to have a higher density of population than rural ones (due to more people living in a fixed area) which leads to what economists call agglomeration economies. One effect is simply that it’s easier for people working in the same industry or company to interact with one another as they work together (increased networking). There are also positive effects like better availability of specialized services such as healthcare, education, and entertainment as well as transport links. Finally, there are knowledge spillovers where people in an urban area learn from each other, often leading to increased innovation. All of these factors mean that businesses are more likely to start up and thrive in urban areas.
6. Innovation And Technology
Innovation and technology often go hand in hand. Cities are places where new technologies are developed and adopted at a faster rate than rural areas. This is partly because cities offer a larger market for new products and services, but it is also because cities are hubs of creativity and innovation. People in cities are more likely to come into contact with new ideas and be open to trying out new things. There are more opportunities for networking and sharing information, which means that there are more chances for the spread of new technologies. The fact that cities often act as centres for finance and trade also means that people in cities are better equipped to take risks on new ideas.
7. Increase In Trade
Urbanization is often associated with an increase in the proportion of the population working in trade (buying and selling goods). This may be simply because areas with larger populations need it.
Cons Of Urbanization:
1. Pollution and Greenhouse
Increased pollution and greenhouse gas emissions.
2. Traffic System
Increased traffic and congestion.
3. Air Pollution
Higher levels of noise and air pollution.
4. Quality of Life
Lower quality of life in dense areas due to issues such as overcrowding and lack of green space.
5. Crime Rates
Increase in crime rates and violence.
6. Basic Services
Difficulty in accessing basic services such as healthcare, education, and transportation in some areas.
7. Lack of Social cohesion and increased
Lack of social cohesion and increased levels of social isolation.
8. Mental Health
Increases in mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression, due to stress from living in a city environment.
9. Obesity and other Chronic Diseases
Increased levels of obesity and other chronic diseases due to sedentary lifestyles and unhealthy diets.
10 Physical Activity
Decreased physical activity levels due to lack of green space and urban design that discourages outdoor exercise.
11. Job Security
Less job security due to factors such as outsourcing.
Increases in poverty can lead to overcrowding and slums.
The inability of children to play safely outside due to road-related dangers of crime.
14. Sense of Community
Decreased sense of community spirit and belonging because people are less likely to be familiar with their neighbours in high-density areas.
15. Living Cost
Higher cost of living because housing is more expensive and there are increased costs related to public transport systems.
16. Job Opportunities
Fewer job opportunities for the middle classes due to an increase in the number of lower-paid jobs combined with a decrease in the number of high-paying jobs requiring a higher level of education.
17. Stress Levels
Increased stress levels from the fast-paced lifestyle and constant noise of city life.
Gentrification, is the process of wealthier people moving into poorer areas and driving up rents and property values, making it difficult for the original residents to remain in their homes.
19. Lack of Green Space Leads
Lack of green space leads to problems such as air pollution, noise pollution, and decreased quality of life.
20. Environmental Impacts of Urbanization
The negative environmental impacts of urbanization often disproportionately affect marginalized groups such as women, low-income people, and ethnic minorities.
All You Need To Know About Urbanization
Since 1950, the world’s population has more than doubled, from 2.5 billion to over 7 billion today. Over 90% of this population growth has occurred in cities and towns. In fact, the world’s population is now more than 50% urbanized for the first time in history. This trend is expected to continue, with the UN predicting that two-thirds of the world’s population will be urban by 2050.
There are many reasons for this rapid urbanization. In developing countries, people are often attracted to cities in search of better jobs and opportunities. In developed countries, people are often drawn to cities by the promise of a higher standard of living. Additionally, rural-to-urban migration has been encouraged by government policies that favour cities over rural areas.
As more and more people move into cities, it is important to consider the impacts of this growth. Urbanization can bring many benefits, such as increased economic opportunities and access to social services. However, it can also lead to problems such as pollution, traffic congestion, and crime.
There are many benefits of urbanization, but there are also some important downsides that should be considered before making the decision to move to an urban area.